High MMP14 expression is predictive of poor prognosis in resectable hepatocellular carcinoma
May 7, 2020
Matrix metalloproteinase 14 (MMP14) has been found to play multiple biological roles in cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Up to now, its expression, clinicopathological and prognostic implications in HCC have not been comprehensively investigated. In the present study, MMP14 expression was detected, using tissue microarray-based immunohistochemical staining, in paired HCC and adjacent liver (AL) samples from 260 patients who underwent radical hepatectomy.
The associations of MMP14 staining H-scores with clinicopathological parameters, overall and disease-free survival were then evaluated. Finally, its expression and prognostic value were confirmed in some online publicly available databases. It was shown that MMP14 expression was significantly higher in HCC than in AL tissues (p=0.035). Furthermore, MMP14 expression correlated positively with tumour size, Edmondson-Steiner grade and α-fetoprotein level (p<0.05).
For survival, MMP14 expression was negatively associated with both overall and disease-free survival in univariate analyses (p<0.05), while it remained statistically significant for disease-free survival by multivariate Cox regression test. In the Ualcan and Kaplan-Meier Plotter databases, MMP14 was also revealed to be overexpressed and prognostic. Taken together, our study indicated that high MMP14 expression was predictive for unfavourable biological behaviours and long-term prognosis in resectable HCC.
Life lacks meaning without acceptance: Ostracism triggers suicidal thoughts
Eleven studies (N = 2,254; 2 preregistered) examined whether ostracism would trigger suicidal thoughts and whether perceived meaning in life would account for this effect. The feeling of ostracism was induced via recalling a past experience (Studies 1a, 1c, 2c, and 3b), imagining a future experience (Studies 1d, 1e, and 2b), engaging in an online real-time interaction (Studies 1b and 2d), or receiving bogus personality feedback (Study 3a).
Across all 11 studies, ostracism increased suicidal thoughts. Study 1a found that ostracism increased implicit associations of “death” and “me” relative to “life” and “me” on the Implicit Association Test of Suicide (Nock et al., 2010). In Study 1b, ostracized participants showed more suicidal thoughts in imagined stressful situations than did included participants. Studies 1c, 1d, and 1e further showed that ostracism increased explicit suicidal thoughts compared with both inclusion and neutral experiences.
Furthermore, we found that perceived meaning in life accounted for ostracism’s effect on suicidal thoughts (Studies 2a and 2b), even after controlling for depressive affect (Study 2c). In Study 2d, a preregistered study, we directly compared the contributions of perceived meaning in life and the 4 basic needs and mood proposed in William’s (2007, 2009) ostracism framework, and we found that perceived meaning in life had a distinct mediating role in the ostracism-suicidal thinking link.
Finally, Studies 3a and 3b found that self-affirmation exercises reduced suicidal thoughts following ostracism. Life lacks meaning without social connection, thereby activating suicidal thoughts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
Rapid Least Concern: towards automating Red List assessments
The IUCN Red List of Threatened SpeciesTM (hereafter the Red List) is an important global resource for conservation that supports conservation planning, safeguarding critical habitat and monitoring biodiversity change (Rodrigues et al. 2006).
However, a major shortcoming of the Red List is that most of the world’s described species have not yet been assessed and published on the Red List (Bachman et al. 2019Eisenhauer et al. 2019). Conservation efforts can be better supported if the Red List is expanded to achieve greater coverage of mega-diverse groups of organisms such as plants, fungi and invertebrates.
There is, therefore, an urgent need to speed up the Red List assessment and documentation workflow.One reason for this lack of species coverage is that a manual and relatively time-consuming procedure is usually employed to assess and document species.
A recent update of Red List documentation standards (IUCN 2013) reduced the data requirements for publishing non-threatened or ‘Least Concern’ species on the Red List. The majority of the required fields for Least Concern plant species can be found in existing open-access data sources or can be easily calculated. There is an opportunity to consolidate these data and analyses into a simple application to fast-track the publication of Least Concern assessments for plants.
There could be as many as 250,000 species of plants (60%) likely to be categorised as Least Concern (Bachman et al. 2019), for which automatically generated assessments could considerably reduce the outlay of time and valuable resources for Red Listing, allowing attention and resources to be dedicated to the assessment of those species most likely to be threatened.